The History of Cannabis

Without a doubt, cannabis is one of the most amazing plants on the planet and one of mother nature’s greatest gifts to mankind.

The history of the different species of cannabis and its usage by people dates back to the next millennium BC in history, and possibly farther back by archaeological evidence. The plant has been valued for its use for rope and fiber, as drugs and food, and for its properties for use.

What is Cannabis?

Cannabis is also called marijuana. It’s a drug that comes from the cannabis plant, which is a flowering plant in the family Cannabaceae. The key drug component in cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol, also called THC. THC is one of the 400+ famous chemicals in the cannabis plant, including a number.

The History of Cannabis: 10,000 Years of Use

Cannabis is an amazing plant the has over 10,000 years of documented use. In this guide, we’re going to provide an in-depth breakdown of the use of cannabis throughout mankind’s history.

Ancient Use: From 10,000 BCE to 100 BCE

8,000+ BCE Use of hemp string in pottery found at historical village website dating back over 10,000 decades, situated in the region of modern-day Taiwan. Locating hemp use and farming sets it among the very first and earliest known agriculture plants. According to Richard Hamilton from the 2009 Scientific American informative article on sustainable farming “Modern people emerged some 250,000 decades ago, yet agriculture is a rather recent innovation, only about 10,000 years old… Agriculture isn’t natural; it’s a human creation. It’s also the cornerstone of modern culture” This stage was also touched by Carl Sagan in 1977 when he suggested the possibility that marijuana might have actually been planet’s first agricultural harvest, resulting in the evolution of culture itself (see 1977, under ).

6,000 BCE Cannabis oil and seeds used for food in China.

4,000 BCE Textiles manufactured from hemp are used in China and Turkestan.

2,737 BCE First recorded use of cannabis as medicine by Emperor Shen Neng of China.

2,000-800 BCE Bhang (dried cannabis leaves, stalks, and seeds ) is cited in the Hindu sacred text Atharvaveda (Science ( Charms) as”Holy Grass”, among the five sacred plants of India. It’s used by medicinally and ritually as an offering.

1,500 BCE Cannabis cultivated in China for food and fiber. Scythians cultivate cannabis and use it to weave hemp material.

700-600 BCE The Zoroastrian Zend-Avesta, an ancient Mayan spiritual text of a few hundred volumes identifies bhang as the”good narcotic.”

600 BCE Hemp rope seems in southern Russia.

700-300 BCE Scythian tribes render Cannabis seeds offerings in imperial tombs.

500 BCE Scythian couple die and are buried with two little tents covering containers for burning incense. Attached to a single tent rod was a leather pouch comprising wild Cannabis seeds. This matches the tales told by Herodotus. The gravesite, found in the late 1940s, was in Pazryk, the shore of the Tien Shan Mountains in modern-day Khazakstan. Hemp is introduced to Northern Europe from the Scythians. An urn containing seeds and leaves of the Cannabis plant, located near Berlin, is located and dated to about this time. Use of hemp goods spread across Europe.

430 BCE Herodotus reports on the ritual and recreation use of Cannabis from the Scythians (Herodotus The Histories 430 B.C. trans. G. Rawlinson).

200 BCE Hemp rope seems in Greece. Chinese Book of Rites cites hemp material.

100 BCE First proof of hemp paper, invented in China.

Early Use: From 100 BCE to 1000

100-0 BCE The psychotropic properties of Cannabis are cited in the recently gathered herbal Pen Ts’ao Ching.

0-100 CE Structure of Samaritan glass and gold glue stash box for preserving hashish, coriander, or salt, buried in a public tomb.

23-79 Pliny the Elder’s The Natural History cites hemp rope and marijuana’s unwanted effects.

47-127 Plutarch cites Thracians with cannabis as an intoxicant.

70 Dioscorides, a doctor in Nero’s military, lists medical marijuana in his Pharmacopoeia.

100 Imported hemp rope seems in England.

105 Legend indicates that Ts’ai Lun invents hemp newspaper in China, 200 years after its real look (see 100 BCE preceding ).

130-200 Greek doctor Galen prescribes medical marijuana.

200 First pharmacopeia of this East lists medical marijuana. Physician Hua T’o uses marijuana as an anesthetic.

300 A young girl in Jerusalem receives medical marijuana during childbirth.

570 The French queen Arnegunde is buried with hemp fabric.

500-600 The Jewish Talmud cites the euphoriant properties of Cannabis.

850 Vikings take hemp seeds and rope into Iceland.

900 Arabs learn methods for creating hemp paper.

900-1000 Scholars debate the advantages and disadvantages of eating hashish. Use spreads throughout Arabia.

1000 Hemp principles appear on Italian boats. Exotic doctor Ibn Wahshiyah’s About Poisons cautions of marijuana’s possible risks.

The Last Eon:  1000 to 2000

1090-1124 In Khorasan, Persia, Hasan ibn al-Sabbah, recruits followers to commit assassinations, and legends grow around their use of hashish. These legends are a few of the oldest written stories of the discovery of these inebriating forces of Cannabis and the use of Hashish with a paramilitary firm as a hypnotic (see U.S. military use, 1942 under ). Historical 12th Century Hashish smoking gets popular during the Middle East.

1155-1221 Persian legend of the Sufi master Sheik Haydar’s personal discovery of Cannabis along with his own alleged creation of hashish with it is subsequent spread to Iraq, Bahrain, Egypt, and Syria. Some of the earliest composed narratives of the use of Cannabis as an inebriant.

1171-1341 Throughout the Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt, Cannabis is released by mysterious devotees from Syria.

1200 1,001 Nights, an Arabian assortment of stories, clarifies hashish’s intoxicating and aphrodisiac properties.

13th Century The earliest monograph on hashish, Zahr al-‘arish fi tahrim al-hashish, has been composed. It’s since been missing. Ibn al-Baytar of Spain supplies a description of this nature of Cannabis. Arab traders deliver Cannabis into the Mozambique coast of Africa.

1271-1295 Journeys of Marco Polo where he provides second-hand reports of this narrative of Hasan ibn al-Sabbah along with his”assassins” with hashish. Time reports of Cannabis are brought to Europe’s attention.

1300 Ethiopian pipes comprising marijuana suggest that the plant has spread from Egypt into the rest of Africa.

1378 Ottoman Emir Soudoun Scheikhouni problems among the first edicts from the ingestion of hashish.

1526 Babur Nama, first emperor and founder of the Mughal Empire heard of hashish in Afghanistan.

1532 French doctor Rabelais’s Gargantua and Pantagruel cites marijuana’s medicinal effects.

1533 King Henry VIII fines farmers should they don’t increase hemp for industrial use.

1549 Angolan slaves brought cannabis together into the sugar plantations of northeastern Brazil. They were allowed to plant their own cannabis involving rows of cane, and also to smoke.

  1. 1550 The epic poem, Benk un Bode, from the poet Mohammed Ebn Soleiman Foruli of Baghdad, bargains allegorically using a dialectical conflict between wine and hashish.

1563 Portuguese doctor Garcia da Orta reports on marijuana’s medicinal effects.

1578 China’s Li Shih-Chen writes about this antibiotic and antiemetic effects of marijuana.

1600 England starts to import hemp from Russia.

1606-1632 British and French nurture Cannabis for hemp in their colonies in Port Royal (1606), Virginia (1611), and Plymouth (1632).

1616 Jamestown settlers started growing the hemp plant because of its remarkably powerful fiber and used it to make rope, rope, and clothes.

1621 Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy suggests marijuana can treat depression.

1600-1700 Use of hashish, alcohol, and opium spreads among the populace of occupied Constantinople. Hashish becomes a Significant trade item between South Asia and Central Asia.

1753 Linnaeus classifies Cannabis sativa.

1764 Medical marijuana appears in The New England Dispensatory.

1776 Kentucky starts growing hemp.

1794 Medical marijuana appears in The Edinburgh New Dispensary.

1798 Napoleon finds that a lot of the Egyptian reduced course habitually uses hashish. Soldiers bring the heritage together, and a prohibition is declared by him.

1800- Marijuana plantations flourished in Mississippi, Georgia, California, South Carolina, Nebraska, New York, and Kentucky. Also in this age, smoking hashish was popular throughout France and to a lesser degree in the united states. Manufacturing extends to Yarkand in Chinese Turkestan from Russian Turkestan.

1809 Antoine Sylvestre de Sacy, a top Arabist, indicates a foundation etymology involving the words”assassin” and”hashish” — following linguist research disproves his theory.

1840 in the USA, medicinal preparations with a Cannabis foundation can be found. Hashish is available in stores that are Persian.

1842 Irish doctor O’Shaughnessy publishes cannabis study in British medical journals.

1843 French writer Gautier publishes The Hashish Club.

1846 French doctor Moreau publishes Hashish and Mental Illness

1850 Cannabis is inserted into The U.S. Pharmacopoeia.

1850-1915 Marijuana was broadly used throughout the United States because of medicinal drugs and may easily be obtained in pharmacies and general shops.

1854 Whittier writes the first American job to cite cannabis as an intoxicant.

1856 British taxation”ganja” and”charas” commerce in India.

1857 American author Ludlow publishes The Hasheesh Eater.

1858 French poet Baudelaire publishes About the Artificial Ideal.

1870-1880 First reports of hashish smoking over the Greek mainland.

1890 Greek Department of Interior prohibits significance, cultivation, and use of hashish. Hashish is made illegal. Sir J.R. Reynolds, the chief physician to Queen Victoria, prescribes medical marijuana to her.

1893-1894 The India Hemp Drugs Commission Report is issued. 70,000 to 80,000 pounds a year of hashish is imported from Central Asia into India.

1906 From the U.S. that the Pure Food and Drug Act has been passed, regulating the labeling of products including Alcohol, Opiates, Cocaine, and Cannabis, Amongst Others.

Historical 20th Century Hashish smoking remains popular across the Middle East.

1910 The Mexican Revolution caused an influx of Mexican immigrants that introduced the custom of recreational use (rather than it is normally medicinal use) to American culture.

1914 The Harrison Act from the U.S. defined the use of Marijuana (among other drugs) as a crime.

1916 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) chief scientists Jason L. Merrill and Lyster H. Dewey produced paper produced from hemp pulp, and they concluded was “beneficial as compared with those used with pulp timber” at USDA Bulletin No. 404. In the publication “The Emperor Wears No Clothes” from Jack Herer that the USDA Bulletin N. 404 reported that a single acre of hemp, in annual rotation on a 20-year period, could produce as much pulp for paper as 4.1 acres (17,000 m2) of trees being cut over the exact same 20-year period. This procedure would use just 1/7 into 1/4 as much polluting sulfur-based acid compounds to divide the glue-like lignin that binds the fibers of this pulp, or none whatsoever using soda ash. The issue of dioxin contamination of rivers is averted in the hemp paper manufacturing process, which doesn’t have to use a chlorine bleach (since the wood pulp paper manufacturing procedure requires) but rather safely substitutes hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching procedure. … When the new (1916) hemp pulp paper process had been legal today, it could soon replace roughly 70 percent of wood pulp paper, such as computer printout paper, corrugated boxes, and paper bags. Yet, mass production of inexpensive news print out of hemp hadn’t grown in any nation, and hemp was a relatively simple goal because factories already had made large investments in equipment to handle cotton, wool, and linen, however, there were still comparatively tiny investments in hemp production.

1915-1927 From the U.S. cannabis starts to be illegal for nonmedical use. Prohibition first starts in California (1915), followed by Texas (1919), Louisiana (1924), and New York (1927).

1919 The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcohol and put marijuana as an appealing option contributing to a growth in the use of this material.

1920s Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas cracks down to hashish smoking. Hashish smuggled into Egypt in Greece, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, and Central Asia.

1924 Russian botanists classify another significant strain of this plant, Cannabis ruderalis.

1926 Lebanese hashish manufacturing is illegal.

1928 Recreational use of Cannabis is prohibited in Britain.

1930 The Yarkand area of Chinese Turkestan exports 91,471 pounds of hashish legally to the Northwest Frontier and Punjab regions of India. Legal taxed imports of hashish continue from Central Asia into India.

1933 The U.S. congress repealed the 21st Amendment, stopping alcohol prohibition; 4 decades after the prohibition of marijuana will probably be in full effect.

1934-1935 Chinese government moves to finish all Cannabis cultivation in Yarkand and charas visitors from Yarkand. Manufacturing becomes prohibited.

1936 The American propaganda movie Reefer Madness was created to frighten American youth from using Cannabis.

1937 U.S. Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act that criminalized the medication. In response, Dr. William C. Woodward, testifying on behalf of the AMA, advised Congress that, “The American Medical Association knows of no evidence that marijuana is a dangerous drug” and cautioned that a prohibition “loses sight of how future investigation may demonstrate that there are considerable clinical uses for Cannabis.” His remarks were dismissed by Congress. A region of the testimony for Congress to pass on the 1937 act originated from articles in newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst, who had substantial financial interests in the lumber business, which fabricated his newsprint paper.

1938 Provide of hashish from Chinese Turkestan almost stops. The U.S. firm DuPont patented the procedures for producing plastics out of oil and coal and a new procedure for producing paper from wood pulp.

1940s Greek hashish smoking heritage fades.

1941 Cannabis has been taken out of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia and it is medicinal use is no more known in the USA. That the government believes cultivation to fill the emptiness of hashish from Chinese 18, the identical year. Charas from Nepal is hashish in India during World War II.

1942 U.S. scientists working in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the CIA’s wartime predecessor, started to come up with a chemical compound that may break down the emotional defenses of enemy spies and POWs. After analyzing several substances, the OSS scientists picked a powerful infusion of marijuana as the best available”truth serum.” The cannabis concoction has been given the code name TD, meaning Truth Medication. When injected into food or tobacco smokes, TD assisted loosen the book of recalcitrant interrogation subjects.

1945 Legal hashish intake continues in India. Hashish use in Greece yells.

1951 The Boggs Act and the Narcotics Control Act in the U.S. raises all medication penalties and put down sentences that are mandatory.

1960 Czech researchers affirm the antibiotic and analgesic effects of cannabis.

1963 Turkish authorities seize 2.5 tons of hashish

965 First reports of this breed Cannibis afghanica and has been used for hashish production in northern Afghanistan.

1967“Smash”, the very first hashish oil seems. California is reached by red Lebanese.

1970-1972 Tremendous fields of Cannabis are cultivated for hashish production in Afghanistan. Afghani hashish ranges introduced for sinsemilla production into North America. Metal sieve fabrics are brought by westerners. Law enforcement efforts against hashish start in Afghanistan.

1970 The US National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) forms. That exact same year that the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act repealed mandatory penalties for drug crimes and marijuana was categorized separately from other narcotics.

1971 First evidence indicating marijuana might help glaucoma sufferers.

1972 The Nixon-appointed Shafer Commission urged the use of cannabis to be re-legalized, but their recommendation was dismissed. U.S. Medical research picks up rate. Proposition 19 in California to legalize marijuana use is rejected by a voter perimeter of 66-33 percent.

1973 Nepal prohibits the Cannabis stores and charas (hand-rolled hash) export. Authorities make sales and hashish production prohibited. Afghani harvest is little.

1975 Nabilone, a cannabinoid-based medicine seems.

1976 The U.S. national authorities established the Investigational New Drug (IND) Compassionate Use research plan to permit patients to get up to eight pounds of cannabis in the government every year. Now, five patients get medical cannabis in the government. In exactly the exact same period the U.S. FDA has been recording marijuana as Schedule I significance:”A high potential for abuse with no accepted medical value”

1977 Carl Sagan suggests that marijuana might have become the world’s first agricultural harvest, resulting in the evolution of culture itself“It could be wryly intriguing if in history that the cultivation of marijuana contributed normally to the creation of agriculture, and thus to culture.” Carl Sagan, The Dragons of Eden, Speculations on the Origin of Human Intelligence de 191 footnotes.

1977-1981 U.S. President Carter, for example, his helper for drug coverage, Dr. Peter Bourne, pushed for decriminalization of marijuana, together with the president asking Congress to abolish national criminal penalties for people caught by less than 1 ounce of marijuana.

1980s Morocco becomes one of, if not the biggest, hashish producing and exporting countries. “Border hashish” is made in northwestern Pakistan along the Afghan border to prevent the Soviet-Afghan war.

1985 Hashish remains created by Muslims of Kashgar and Yarkland in Northwest China. From the U.S. that the FDA Requires dronabinol, a synthetic THC, for cancer sufferers.

1986 President Reagan signed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, reinstating mandatory minimums and increasing federal penalties for possession and supply and formally begins the U.S. global”war on drugs”

1987 Moroccan government cracks down upon Cannabis cultivation in lower elevations of the Rif Mountains.

1988 U.S. DEA administrative law Judge Francis Young discovers, after comprehensive hearings, that marijuana has a clearly recognized medical use and should be reclassified as a prescriptive drug. His recommendation is dismissed.

1992 In response to a surge of requests from AIDS patients to get medical marijuana, the U.S. government closes the Compassionate Use program. That exact same year the drug dronabinol is accepted for the syndrome.

1993 Cannabis eradication campaigns restart in Morocco.

1994 Border hashish nonetheless created in Pakistan. Fighting between clans has been mad hashish trade.

1995 Intro of hashish-making gear and look of locally made hashish in Amsterdam coffee shops.

1996 California (the very first U.S. state to prohibit marijuana use, visit 1915) became the very primary U.S. State to re-legalize medical marijuana use for individuals suffering from AIDS, cancer, and other serious ailments. A similar bill has been passed in Arizona the exact same calendar year. This was followed by the passing of comparable initiatives in Alaska, Colorado, Maine, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Washington D.C., Hawaii, Maryland, New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

1997 The American Office of National Drug Control Policy commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the medical effectiveness of cannabis therapeutics. The IOM concluded that cannabis is a safe and effective medication, patients must have access, and also the authorities should expand paths for study and drug development. The national government entirely dismissed its own findings and refused to act on its guidelines.

1997-2001 In direct contradiction to the IOM recommendations,” President Clinton, continuing the Regan and Bush “war on drugs” age, started a campaign to arrest and prosecute medical cannabis patients and their suppliers in California and elsewhere.

1999 Hawaii and North Dakota unsuccessfully try to legalize hemp farming. The U.S. DEA reclassifies dronabinol for a schedule III drug, which makes the medicine simpler to urge while marijuana continues to be recorded Schedule I as having”no accepted medical use.”

2000 Legalization initiative in Alaska fails.

Cannabis in the Modern World: 2000 to Present

2001 Britain’s Home Secretary, David Blunkett, suggests calming the classification of cannabis from a class B to class C. Canada prohibits federal legislation in support of medical marijuana, and from 2003 Canada becomes the first country on earth to approve medical marijuana nation-wide.

2001-2009 Beneath President G.W. Bush that the U.S. federal authorities intensified its”war on drugs” targeting both patients and physicians throughout the country of California.

2005 Marc Emery, a Canadian citizen and the biggest distributor of marijuana seeds in the USA from approximately 1995 during July 2005 was about the FBI #1 desired medication list for decades and was finally indicted by the U.S. DEA. He was extradited out of Canada for trial in the U.S. in May 2010.

2009 President Obama made steps toward finishing the exact ineffective 20-year “war on drugs” initiated through the Regan administration by saying that human drug use is truly a public health problem, and needs to be treated as such. Under his guidance, the U.S. Justice Department declared that federal prosecutors will no longer pursue medical marijuana users and providers that comply with state laws.

2010 Marc Emery of Vancouver, BC, Canada, has been sentenced to September 10 at a U.S. District Court in Seattle to five years in prison and four decades of supervised release for”conspiracy to manufacture marijuana” (eg. selling marijuana seeds).

2010 Proposition 19 to legalize marijuana in California is put back to the ballet (called The Regulate, Control, and Tax Cannabis Act of 2010). Present voter sticks imply that the proposal has roughly 50% population service and will probably loose or win with a margin of just 2%.

October 2010 Only months ahead of the November 02 California election Prop. 19 Attorney General Eric Holder said the federal government could continue to impose U.S. laws that announce that the drug is prohibited, even if voters approve the initiative, saying “we shall aggressively enforce the (Controlled Substances Act) against these organizations and individuals that have, manufacture or distribute marijuana for recreational use.”

Nov 2010 California Proposition 19, also referred to as the Regulate, Control and Tax Cannabis Act of 2010, has been narrowly defeated by 53.6percent of the vote. This could have legalized numerous marijuana-related actions in California, enabling local authorities to control these activities, allowing local authorities to enforce and collect marijuana-related taxes and fees, and authorizing different civil and criminal penalties.

Nov 2012 The States of Colorado and Washington legalize marijuana/cannabis for recreational use; claims are made into the folks that these new initiatives will have no effect on medical marijuana in those countries. The nation of Uruguay marijuana/cannabis for recreational use. The US District of Columbia decriminalizes private use and possession of marijuana/cannabis.

July 07, 2014 Cannabis City becomes Seattle’s first legal marijuana store for over-the-counter buy & recreational use. This generated global media focus and critical debate within the legalization of marijuana and a potential ending to the “drug war” The first buy, by Deb Green that a 65-year old marathon-running grandma from Ballard, is a portion of this Selection of this Museum of Industry and History at Seattle, Washington.

Nov 2014 The States of Alaska and Oregon legalize marijuana/cannabis for recreational use; the States of California, Nevada, Arizona, Hawaii, and Massachusetts all start to draft legalization legislation.

July 24, 2015 With the passing of Senate Bill 5052 Washington State medical marijuana comes entirely under the control of the recently re-named Washington Liquor and Cannabis Board (LCB).

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